How does 5-ALA work?

5-ALA is transformed into endogenous PPIX in vivo, and its distribution is highly selective. The transformation rate of tumor cells and some fast-proliferating cells is particularly strong, so the content of PPIX in cells is also higher than in other cells. This is ALA-photodynamic therapy. (ALA-PDT) treatment basis. When Svanber used this product to treat tumors, there was no significant change in tumor blood vessels before and after treatment on the body surface, which indirectly indicated that the method uses cytotoxicity to kill cells rather than cell necrosis by destroying and blocking tumor blood vessels. In another experiment, an electron microscope was used to observe the cells treated with this product. It was found that after 1 hour, the mitochondria were swollen and the cristae disappeared, while other cells and organs had no obvious changes. Damage mitochondria and cause cell death.
During the treatment of this product, the surrounding normal tissues will also be non-selectively destroyed, such as oxidized proteins, liposomes, and other subcutaneous cell structures, so the oxygen free radicals generated under the pathological conditions of this product overload will lead to acute cycle Sexual porphyria. In addition, this product will cause the release of iron ions in ferritin, aggravate the oxidation of cells, and cause acute periodic porphyria. It has been reported that this product and GABA may be combined into cells through a common carrier protein, so there is a neurotoxic effect in the onset of acute porphyria. It has been confirmed that the oxygen free radicals induced by this product can oxidize DNA, which may lead to the deterioration of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with acute periodic porphyria. However, Mustajoki et al. injected 50-80mg/h of this 92.5h into male healthy volunteers. They had no subjective symptoms, no changes in pulse, blood pressure, autonomic nerve function, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity, and no photosensitivity occurred. It can be speculated that maintenance of high doses of this product in healthy volunteers does not cause porphyria-like symptoms.