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Glycine Betaine: An Important Molecule

Glycine betaine, also known as N,N-dimethylglycine choline or L-betaine, is a naturally occurring compound with many important biological functions. It is an osmoregulatory substance with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fatigue properties. In this article, we will introduce the source, structure, biosynthesis, physiological effects and medical applications of Glycine betaine in detail.


betaine structure

♦Source and structure(where is it from?)

Glycine betaine is a nitrogen-containing organic compound, which is widely found in living organisms. It has two methyl groups attached to glycine and choline respectively.The molecular formula of Glycine betaine is C5H11NO2 and molecular weight is 119.15.Its chemical structure is as follows:



Glycine betaine can be synthesized in living organisms through a series of enzymatic reactions. The synthesis pathway is as follows:

Oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde;

Reduction of betaine aldehyde to betaine;

Methylation of betaine to glyceryl betaine;

Hydrolysis of glyceryl betaine to glyceryl betaine;

Isomerization of glyceryl betaine into glycine betaine.

✅what are the benefits of it?

1.Glycine betaine has important physiological effects in organisms, mainly including:

2.Osmoregulation: Glycine betaine is an effective osmoregulatory substance that can maintain cellular water and metabolic balance. Under stress conditions, the content of Glycine betaine in plant and animal cells increases significantly to protect cells from stress damage.

3.Antioxidant effect: Glycine betaine has the effect of scavenging free radicals and antioxidant damage, which can protect cells from oxidative stress damage. Studies have shown that Glycine betaine can inhibit lipid peroxidation and reduce cell membrane damage.

4.Anti-inflammatory effect: Glycine betaine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which can inhibit the inflammatory response and cytokine expression. Studies have shown that Glycine betaine can reduce the symptoms of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and asthma.



5.Anti-fatigue effects: Glycine betaine can improve exercise endurance and fatigue resistance. Studies have shown that supplementation with Glycine betaine can increase muscular endurance and reduce post-exercise muscle soreness.

6.Other effects: Glycine betaine also has cardiovascular protection and improved cognitive function. Studies have shown that Glycine betaine can lower blood pressure, improve blood lipid levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, Glycine betaine has the effect of promoting DNA repair and maintaining DNA stability.

what Application fields it can be used for?

Since Glycine betaine has various physiological effects, it also has certain application value in the medical field. At present, Glycine betaine is mainly used as a diuretic for the treatment of cirrhosis ascites, nephrotic syndrome and other edematous diseases. Studies have shown that Glycine betaine can increase urinary excretion, reduce fluid retention, and reduce edema symptoms. In addition, Glycine betaine also has liver protection and anti-inflammatory effects, and can be used to treat hepatitis, fatty liver and other diseases.